Online Dictionary of Invertebrate Zoology

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Taylor, Elizabeth A. Suter, Zhuo Q. Beaupre Molloy College. A newmethod tomeasure growth rates of individual photoautotrophic cells by combining stable isotope probing SIP and single-cell resonance Raman microspectrometry is introduced. This report explores optimal experimental design and the theoretical underpinnings for quantitative responses of Raman spectra to cellular isotopic composition. Resonance Raman spectra of isogenic cultures of the cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. Single-cell growth rates were calculated from spectra-derived isotopic content and empirical relationships.

Growth rates among any 25 cells in a sample Millette, Julia Grosse, Winifred M. Johnson, Michelle J.

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Jungbluth, Elizabeth A. Suter Molloy College. Despite this, current evidence suggests some of these interactions may have perceptible impacts on foodweb dynamics and model results. Incorporation of cryptic interactions into models is especially important for those interactions involving the transport of nutrients or energy.

Our aim is to highlight a range of cryptic interactions across the plankton foodweb, where they exist, and models that have taken Kavanaugh, Matthew J. Oliver, Francisco P. Chavez, Ricardo M. Letelier, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Scott C. Doney Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. For terrestrial and marine benthic ecologists, landscape ecology provides a framework to address issues of complexity, patchiness, and scale—providing theory and context for ecosystem based management in a changing climate.

Marine pelagic ecosystems are likewise changing in response to warming, changing chemistry, and resource exploitation. However, unlike spatial landscapes that migrate slowly with time, pelagic seascapes are embedded in a turbulent, advective ocean. Adaptations from landscape ecology to marine pelagic ecosystem management must consider the nature and scale of biophysical interactions associated with organisms ranging from microbes to whales, a hierarchical organization shaped by physical processes, and our limited Heron, C.

Mark Eakin, Frank E.

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These products fulfill requests from coral reef managers and researchers for higher resolution products by taking advantage of new satellites, sensors and algorithms. Herwitz University of South Florida. Light availability is an important factor driving primary productivity in benthic ecosystems, but in situ and remote sensing measurements of light quality are limited for coral reefs and seagrass beds. We evaluated the productivity responses of a patch reef and a seagrass site in the Lower Florida Keys to ambient light availability and spectral quality.

In situ optical properties were characterized utilizing moored and water column bio-optical and hydrographic measurements. Net ecosystem productivity NEP was also estimated for these study sites using benthic productivity chambers. Our results show higher spectral light attenuation and absorption, and lower irradiance during low tide A compiled set of in situ data is important to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite-data records.

Observations of the following variables were compiled: spectral remote-sensing reflectances, concentrations of chlorophyll a , spectral inherent optical properties and spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients.

Online Dictionary of Invertebrate Zoology: Complete Work

The data were from multi-project archives acquired via the open We test the hypothesis that climate and environmental conditions are becoming favorable for dengue transmission in San Juan, Puerto Rico. We evaluated the dengue incidence and environmental data with Principal Component Analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, Mann-Kendall trend test and logistic regressions.

Results indicated that dry days are increasing and wet days are decreasing. MSL is increasing, posing higher risk of dengue as the perimeter of the San Juan Bay estuary expands and shorelines move inland. Martin, Adrian P.

High-resolution satellite images of ocean color and sea surface temperature reveal an abundance of ocean fronts, vortices and filaments at scales below 10 km but measurements of ocean surface dynamics at these scales are rare. There is increasing recognition of the role played by small scale ocean processes in ocean-atmosphere coupling, upper-ocean mixing and ocean vertical transports, with advanced numerical models and in situ observations highlighting fundamental changes in dynamics when scales reach 1 km.

Numerous scientific publications highlight the global impact of small oceanic scales on marine ecosystems, operational forecasts and long-term climate projections through strong ageostrophic circulations, large Hartill University of Maine. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve in Southeast Alaska is a system of fjords that presents an ideal natural laboratory to study terrestrial, aquatic and marine patterns of succession due to its unique and recent history of deglaciation. The patterns of deep benthic community assemblages in the fjords of Glacier Bay were investigated by quantitative assessment of underwater photo-quadrats collected using a remotely operated vehicle.

The percent cover and diversity of species were lowest near the glaciated heads of the fjords and highest in the Central Channel and at the mouths of the fjords of Glacier Bay, where oceanographic conditions Heterotrophic protists play pivotal roles in aquatic ecosystems by transferring matter and energy, including lipids, from primary producers to higher trophic predators.

Using Oxyrrhis marina as a model organism, changes to the non-saponifiable protist lipids were investigated under satiation and starvation conditions. During active feeding on the alga Cryptomonas sp. Evidence of trophic upgrading in O. To the Machain-Castillo, A. Sanchez-Cabeza, A. Invertebrate zoology is the subdiscipline of zoology that consists of the study of invertebrates , animals without a backbone a structure which is found only in fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds and mammals.

Invertebrates are a vast and very diverse group of animals that includes sponges , echinoderms , tunicates , numerous different phyla of worms , molluscs , arthropods and many additional phyla. Single-celled organisms or protists are usually not included within the same group as invertebrates. These divisions are sometimes further divided into more specific specialties. For example, within arachnology, acarology is the study of mites and ticks ; within entomology, lepidoptery is the study of butterflies and moths , myrmecology is the study of ants and so on.

In the period starting in the late 16th century, invertebrate zoology saw growth in the number of publications made and improvement in the experimental practices associated with the field. One of the major works to be published in the area of zoology was Conrad Gessner 's Historia animalium , which was published in numerous editions from to Though it was a work more generally addressing zoology in the large sense, it did contain information on insect life.

Much of the information came from older works; Gessner restated the work of Pliny the Elder and Aristotle while mixing old knowledge of the natural history of insects with his own observations. With the invention of the Microscope in came a new way of observing the small creatures that fall under the umbrella of invertebrate. Robert Hooke , who worked out of the Royal Society in England, conducted observation of insects—including some of their larval forms—and other invertebrates, such as ticks. His Micrographia , published in , included illustrations and written descriptions of the things he saw under the microscope.

Others also worked with the microscope following its acceptance as a scientific tool. Francesco Redi , an Italian physician and naturalist, used a microscope for observation of invertebrates, but is known for his work in disproving the theory of spontaneous generation.

Redi managed to prove that flies did not spontaneously arise from rotting meat.

Online Dictionary of Invertebrate Zoology: Complete Work

He conducted controlled experiments and detailed observation of the fly life cycle in order to do so. Redi also worked in the description and illustration of parasites for both plants and animals. Other men were also conducting research into pests and parasites at this time. Felix Plater , a Swiss physician, worked to differentiate between two types of tape worm.

Invertebrate Zoology Subject Guide

He also wrote descriptions of both the worms he observed and the effects these worms had on their hosts. Following the publication of Francis Bacon 's ideas about the value of experimentation in the sciences came a shift toward true experimental efforts in the biological sciences, including invertebrate zoology. WormBase : Database featuring biological and genetic information about the roundworm C.

WormImage : Browseable and searchable database of images of the C.

Invertebrate Zoology

Virtual Worm Project : Webapp that provides interactive views of the C. Biogeoinformatics of Hexacorals : Website featuring in-depth information about the biology and environment of hexacorals. It includes a searchable database with taxonomic, distributional, and environmental data.

Hardy's Internet Guide to Marine Gastropods : Website featuring lists of marine gastropods, and similar classes, Browseable by scientific and common names with many records including images. Molluscabase : Taxonomy database for mollusks featuring synonym and environment information, as well as a Browseable taxonomy tree.

The Sponge Guide : Guide to over species of sponges featuring species descriptions, morphology information, and images.